“Why don’t you just take a nap if you’re so tired? It’ll probably help and give me a break from your whining…”
“I can’t nap! I feel all groggy after a nap. Besides, I find the complaining is helping me through the fatigue”
Napping is something which divides opinions. It’s no yeast-based snack featured heavily in the news recently, but there are certainly strong proponents of the will-nap and won’t-nap camps. However, what does the research say about napping? Can it help us get through the day and feel better able to deal with the challenges which face us?
Firstly, sleep in general is something taken for granted. We’re all guilty of it. On average we need about eight hours sleep, with some individual variation, but yet on average the general population is shy of this by one and a half hours. Although we should really be focusing on ensuring we get the right amount of sleep, at the right time, for our own body, it may be that napping may alleviate some of the symptoms of poor sleep such as fatigue and mood changes.
Regardless of your own personal views on this topic, it seems that naps are effective in easing fatigue, increasing our concentration, improving mood and even reaction times. Interestingly enough, even a relatively short nap of 10 minutes has been shown to improve alertness and decrease feelings of fatigue. Moreover, the positive effects were more immediate than for short (e.g. 10 minutes) compared to longer naps (e.g. 30 minutes). On a more practical level, there is evidence to suggest that a 15-minute nap could help reduce the number of road accidents.
It is key to remember that napping is a broad term. The short periods of sleep, typically during the day, which we call naps can vary in their duration and in the type of sleep which an individual might get. This could start to explain why some people love to nap and others despise it, but more on that later.
Great, so we should all be trying to sneak a nap in during office hours? Well you might want to think about the time at which you take a brief trip into sleep. During the average day, we tend to have a post-lunch dip in concentration and energy which lasts from around 1pm-4pm. Research has found that naps, whether brief or long, are most effective when taken during this post-lunch dip.
At this point, it looks like napping, albeit at the right time, can have some benefits. Yet, why might some people not actually end up benefiting? There are two possible explanations for this.
One is that disgruntled nappers may sleep for too long and focus on the grogginess upon awakening. The longer an individual naps for, the more likely they are to feel sluggish upon awakening – also referred to as sleep inertia. The positive effects of longer naps are felt for longer, but it takes longer for them to be realised.
Another explanation may depend on how serious nappers are about well… napping! Those who have more experience with napping were found to benefit more from a brief nap than those who don’t nap. This suggests that napping might have a greater effect for those who do it more frequently. Then again, it may simply be that habitual nappers are habitual because of the fact they benefit from those short slumbers. Rather than experience, it may just be individual differences. This is a question we don’t have the answer to quite yet before you try to discipline yourself into daily naps!
So what’s the verdict overall? Napping can be beneficial and if you can work through the sleep inertia longer naps will have a longer effect on your functioning. That been said, even naps as short as 10 minutes can have a positive impact. There are individual differences in our response to napping but that shouldn’t hinder us from feeling rested. Napping may be useful to ease fatigue but the ideal way to manage daytime sleepiness is to make sure you are getting better quality sleep during the night. Naps should not be a substitute for poor sleep if it can be helped!
One more thing…
Time for ‘shameless plug time’. I am volunteering with the Manchester Science Festival as part of their sleep installation known as the Chronarium. It aims to immerse participants in specially selected lights and sounds which are used to promote relaxation and sleep. Would-be nappers are suspended in sturdy hammocks and are gently rocked into a peaceful state while the hustle and bustle of the busy shopping centre outside the fabric walls feels like a distant world.
The Chronarium is currently open as part of the Manchester Science Festival and can be found in the Manchester Arndale Centre. It is open until the 30th October. For those Mancunion readers amongst you, it’s free entry and well worth trying out!
Tietzel, A. J., & Lack, L. C. (2002). The recuperative value of brief and ultra‐brief naps on alertness and cognitive performance. Journal of sleep research, 11(3), 213-218.
Brooks, A., & Lack, L. (2006). A brief afternoon nap following nocturnal sleep restriction: which nap duration is most recuperative?. SLEEP-NEW YORK THEN WESTCHESTER-, 29(6), 831.
Reyner, L. A., & Horne, J. A. (1997). Suppression of sleepiness in drivers: combination of caffeine with a short nap. Psychophysiology, 34(6), 721-725.
For more info on the Chronarium: