Monthly Archives: October 2016

Should We Be Napping More?

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Please tweet me and other sleep scientists at the University of Manchester your sleep questions using the hashtag above! #msf16

 

“Why don’t you just take a nap if you’re so tired? It’ll probably help and give me a break from your whining…”

“I can’t nap! I feel all groggy after a nap. Besides, I find the complaining is helping me through the fatigue”

“…”

Napping is something which divides opinions. It’s no yeast-based snack featured heavily in the news recently, but there are certainly strong proponents of the will-nap and won’t-nap camps. However, what does the research say about napping? Can it help us get through the day and feel better able to deal with the challenges which face us?

Firstly, sleep in general is something taken for granted. We’re all guilty of it. On average we need about eight hours sleep, with some individual variation, but yet on average the general population is shy of this by one and a half hours. Although we should really be focusing on ensuring we get the right amount of sleep, at the right time, for our own body, it may be that napping may alleviate some of the symptoms of poor sleep such as fatigue and mood changes.

Regardless of your own personal views on this topic, it seems that naps are effective in easing fatigue, increasing our concentration, improving mood and even reaction times. Interestingly enough, even a relatively short nap of 10 minutes has been shown to improve alertness and decrease feelings of fatigue. Moreover, the positive effects were more immediate than for short (e.g. 10 minutes) compared to longer naps (e.g. 30 minutes). On a more practical level, there is evidence to suggest that a 15-minute nap could help reduce the number of road accidents.

It is key to remember that napping is a broad term. The short periods of sleep, typically during the day, which we call naps can vary in their duration and in the type of sleep which an individual might get. This could start to explain why some people love to nap and others despise it, but more on that later.

Great, so we should all be trying to sneak a nap in during office hours? Well you might want to think about the time at which you take a brief trip into sleep. During the average day, we tend to have a post-lunch dip in concentration and energy which lasts from around 1pm-4pm. Research has found that naps, whether brief or long, are most effective when taken during this post-lunch dip.

At this point, it looks like napping, albeit at the right time, can have some benefits. Yet, why might some people not actually end up benefiting? There are two possible explanations for this.

One is that disgruntled nappers may sleep for too long and focus on the grogginess upon awakening. The longer an individual naps for, the more likely they are to feel sluggish upon awakening – also referred to as sleep inertia. The positive effects of longer naps are felt for longer, but it takes longer for them to be realised.

Another explanation may depend on how serious nappers are about well… napping! Those who have more experience with napping were found to benefit more from a brief nap than those who don’t nap. This suggests that napping might have a greater effect for those who do it more frequently. Then again, it may simply be that habitual nappers are habitual because of the fact they benefit from those short slumbers. Rather than experience, it may just be individual differences. This is a question we don’t have the answer to quite yet before you try to discipline yourself into daily naps!

So what’s the verdict overall? Napping can be beneficial and if you can work through the sleep inertia longer naps will have a longer effect on your functioning. That been said, even naps as short as 10 minutes can have a positive impact. There are individual differences in our response to napping but that shouldn’t hinder us from feeling rested. Napping may be useful to ease fatigue but the ideal way to manage daytime sleepiness is to make sure you are getting better quality sleep during the night. Naps should not be a substitute for poor sleep if it can be helped!

One more thing…

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Time for ‘shameless plug time’. I am volunteering with the Manchester Science Festival as part of their sleep installation known as the Chronarium. It aims to immerse participants in specially selected lights and sounds which are used to promote relaxation and sleep. Would-be nappers are suspended in sturdy hammocks and are gently rocked into a peaceful state while the hustle and bustle of the busy shopping centre outside the fabric walls feels like a distant world.

The Chronarium is currently open as part of the Manchester Science Festival and can be found in the Manchester Arndale Centre. It is open until the 30th October. For those Mancunion readers amongst you, it’s free entry and well worth trying out!

Inquisitive Tortoise

References:

Tietzel, A. J., & Lack, L. C. (2002). The recuperative value of brief and ultra‐brief naps on alertness and cognitive performance. Journal of sleep research, 11(3), 213-218.

Brooks, A., & Lack, L. (2006). A brief afternoon nap following nocturnal sleep restriction: which nap duration is most recuperative?. SLEEP-NEW YORK THEN WESTCHESTER-, 29(6), 831.

Reyner, L. A., & Horne, J. A. (1997). Suppression of sleepiness in drivers: combination of caffeine with a short nap. Psychophysiology, 34(6), 721-725.

For more info on the Chronarium:

The Chronarium Sleep Lab

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Can a Lack of Sleep Kill You?

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“Have you forgotten so easily?” the subject asked. “We are you. We are the madness that lurks within you all, begging to be free at every moment in your deepest animal mind. We are what you hide from in your beds every night. We are what you sedate into silence and paralysis when you go to the nocturnal haven where we cannot tread.”

Surviving participant from ‘The Russian Sleep Experiment’ in the late 1940s. This volunteer went 15 days without sleep.

Before you start looking over your shoulder for the demonic presence presented above, don’t be alarmed. The quote above is from a piece of horror fiction from a website called Creepy Pasta and is completely fake. I hope.

I wanted to start with this as Halloween is fast approaching and I thought that a more fiendish sleep myth was worth looking at. Can a lack of sleep be directly responsible for your death?

A complete lack of sleep is something new parents and those of us with upcoming deadlines may know all too well. It’s draining, depressing, and leaves us eyeing up any available floor space as prime real-estate for your exhausted brain and body.

We have already looked at the effects of getting too little or too much sleep in my earlier post, but not the more extreme side of this. Research conducted with animals at the end of the 19th and the start of the 20th century suggests that not only is sleep important, but that it is vital for sustaining life. In experiments which looked at puppies, cats and rats, it was found that after anything from a few days to around a month of no to very little sleep would lead to death in these animals. This should be taken with a pinch of salt as animals tend to have to be forced to stay awake, and this is typically through stressful contraptions.

How about humans though? What is the longest any one has gone without sleep and gone on to tell the tale?

Well there are two main sources which we can look at. Firstly, there are the people who have willingly deprived themselves of sleep and secondly we can look at people who no longer sleep. Starting with those strange souls who willingly deprive themselves of shut-eye we can look towards a reality TV-show, our trusty sleep-deprived student population, and a couple of radio DJs to start to answer this question.

People are seemingly keen to show off their endurance when it comes to neglecting or overindulging in the necessities of life. Some will do it to win a fabulous prize and others because… Well I’m sure they know why they do it. Anyway, one such contest is relevant here.

The reality TV show ‘Shattered’ provided contestants a chance to win £100,000. All they had to do was be the last one standing in a competition to stay awake the longest. The show was screened on channel 4 in 2004 and its questionable premise didn’t put off a group of eager participants keen to deprive themselves of sleep for fame and glory. The winner stayed awake ultimately for 178 hours. The show capped the length of time participants could remain awake for, and a number of increasingly soporific tasks eventually weeded out one overall victor. If you are interested in this ‘experiment’ you can watch it here.

However, 178 hours was meagre compared to the next contenders. It seems that at the end of the 1950s and early 1960s there was a surge in radio DJs attempting to promote themselves and further their careers in bizarre ways. Collectively they felt that staying awake and parading their increasingly fatigued selves in a department store window was the way to do this.

Our first member of the media to tackle a lack of sleep was a young radio announcer referred to as W.A. He managed to stay awake for a total of 220 hours or just over 9 days. Previously, another radio DJ by the name of Peter Tripp had managed to last 201 hours without sleep. Finally, our last radio DJ, Tom Rounds, shortly after moving to Honolulu in 1959, managed to stay awake for 260 hours and appeared to suffer no long-term effects of his sleep deprivation.

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Is sleep necessary for sustaining life?

However, their collective records did not last long. The radio DJs were swiftly beaten in 1964 by the efforts of a student called Randy Gardener. Randy was a 17 years old student who felt that he could provide something more interesting than a papier-mâché volcano to present at his school’s science fair. He went without sleep for 264.4 hours, which equates to about 11 days and 24 minutes, and supposedly suffered no long-term problems. The often cited report claims that Randy suffered no ill effects of his experiment, yet others claim he experienced hallucinations, paranoia, fluctuations in mood, and problems in short term memory and concentration. The latter would fit with what we know about acute sleep disturbances (Petrovsky et al. 2014; Kahn-Greene et al., 2007).

Interesting, there have been reports of others having seemingly beaten Randy’s record and by a sizeable margin. These have not been validated in part due to scientists and those responsible for recording ‘world records’ not wanting to encourage these record attempts. For example, the Guinness Book of World Records no longer prints updates to the sleep deprivation record since Randy Gardener.

Okay, so far it looks like we can go a long time without sleep and survive. This seems to suggest that although we need sleep (try not sleeping tonight if you’re not convinced), an acute loss is not going to be directly responsible for your demise (but likely indirectly).

Let’s move to the second source of human sleep loss evidence now: those who no longer possess the ability to sleep.

We’ve already looked at people who for one reason or another have decided to willingly deprive themselves of sleep. Yet, for some the ability to sleep is lost. Although insomnia fits this bill, in this case we are referring to the rare genetic brain disease known as Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI). As the name suggests, this disease is associated with a prolonged and severe insomnia which ultimately leads to death. There are some experimental treatments to delay the fatal consequences but these may only provide a couple of extra years at best.

Fatal familial insomnia is a prion disease. Prions are misfolded proteins that cause damage to the brain as they clump together. In the case of FFI, these prions clump at a specific part of the brain known as the thalamus. The thalamus plays a prominent role in regulating sleep and in coordinating the brain as it drifts deeper and deeper in somnolence. As a result, as the damage to the thalamus accumulates this unsurprisingly leads to worsening insomnia.

These individuals seemingly sleep very little or not at all and will survive from a few months to about several years following the presentation of symptoms. The course of this illness would suggest that it is possible to die from sleep deprivation, at least at extreme durations. However, we can’t say that it is the complete lack of sleep alone which kills those with FFI as damage to the thalamus affects other functions rather than just sleep. Moreover, as this disease is so rare that it would be wrong to make a firm conclusion based on this alone. More likely, it seems that the lack of sleep contributes significantly, but not completely, to the decline of those with this illness.

So, what’s the verdict on sleep deprivation being capable of deadly consequences?

The research in animals suggests it can be but the human studies tell another story. Although common myths and horror stories might like to toy with our inbuilt fears about the unknown, it looks like a lack of sleep will not directly lead to your death. Instead, the host of effects already covered may be the true driver between mortality and sleep loss.

Inquisitive Tortoise

References:

Luby, E. D., Frohman, C. E., Grisell, J. L., Lenzo, J. E., & Gottlieb, J. S. (1960). Sleep deprivation: effects on behavior, thinking, motor performance, and biological energy transfer systems. Psychosomatic Medicine, 22(3), 182-192.

Petrovsky, N., Ettinger, U., Hill, A., Frenzel, L., Meyhöfer, I., Wagner, M., … & Kumari, V. (2014). Sleep deprivation disrupts prepulse inhibition and induces psychosis-like symptoms in healthy humans. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34(27), 9134-9140.

** http://creepypasta.wikia.com/wiki/The_Russian_Sleep_Experiment

**In case you find yourself wanting to read the rest of the fictitious foray into the effects of sleep deprivation.

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